On the Mechanisms Underlying the Secretion and Export of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein/Histamine Releasing Factor (TCTP/HRF)
Jeehye Maeng, Miyoung Kim, Kyunglim Lee*
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2012
First Page: 33
Last Page: 40
Publisher Id: TOALLJ-5-33
Article History:Received Date: 25/1/2012
Revision Received Date: 10/2/2012
Acceptance Date: 17/2/2012
Electronic publication date: 18/5/2012
Collection year: 2012
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Numerous studies have demonstrated that TCTP/HRF is a unique cytokine, modulating the release of inflammatory mediators from various cell types including cells involved in allergic phenomena. Despite the absence of a leader sequence in its NH2-terminus, TCTP/HRF is regarded as a secreted protein found outside of cells as well as in fluids from allergic patients and parasitic organisms. Recent studies clarified several potential mechanisms leading to its secretion. For example, these studies showed that TCTP/HRF is exported from cells via a non-classical, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi-independent mechanism associated with exosomal transport. TSAP6, a p53-inducible transmembrane protein, has been shown to enhance exosome production, and facilitate the secretion of TCTP/HRF into extracellular milieu. Additionally, H,K-ATPase also appears to play a role in the transport of TCTP/HRF, since inhibitors of H,K-ATPase also inhibit TCTP/HRF exit. The exact mechanisms involved in TCTP/HRF secretion has not yet emerged. Here we attempted to collate the available information in the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the release of TCTP/HRF and of the factors that seem to influence these mechanisms.