Urticaria as Symptom of Parasite Migration Through the Biological Barriers

Alketa Hysni Bakiri1, Ervin Cerciz Mingomataj*, , 1, 2
1 University of Tirana, Nursing Faculty, Dept. of Preclinical Disciplines - Albania
2 Mother Theresa” School of Medicine, Dept. of Allergology & Clinical Immunology, Tirana - Albania

© 2011 Bakiri and Mingomataj;

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Rruga Myslym Shyri, P. 47, Apt. 15, Tirana - Albania; Tel: ++35542427010; Fax: ++35542229203; E-mail:
Both authors contributed equally to this work.


The absence of a consistent link between parasitoses and urticarial symptoms in the clinical investigations contrasts to the fact that some parasites are the most potent inducers of immunoglobulin E that exist in nature. To shed some light into this question, this review is focused on the actual knowledge regarding parasites life cycle, interactions with host immunity, the influence on host behavior, and finally the role of all these factors on the urticaria development. The collected data demonstrate that parasites could manipulate the host behavior for its own benefit in different ways, inducing urticarial reactions during penetration into different biological barriers. In this context, urticaria may be associated with certain stages of the parasites’ life cycle or with host tissue location, but not necessarily only with their presence in the host organism. As compared to T helper (Th) 1, the Th2 response, the eosinophilic infiltration and the complement inhibition could assure a more pleasant surrounding area for the development of some parasites. Taken together, these concepts could explain the epidemiological discrepancy between low rates of urticaria occurrence, and the usual parasites-induced Th2 response. However, further studies are necessary to provide better-based conclusions.

Keywords: Eosinophil attraction, host behavior, parasites life cycle, urticaria, Th1/Th2 response.